Sea Transport Infrastructure

The presence of deep water in channels or berths, the provision of protection from the wind, waves and storms and access to intermodal transportation such as trains or trucks are critical to a good port. A port must also have navigational aids such as lighthouses, buoys and sea marks.

A port requires some infrastructure to efficiently send and receive cargo. Harbors and seaports consist of components such as piers, wharves and docks.

A port is a facility for receiving ships and transferring cargo to and from them. They are usually situated at the edge of an ocean or sea, river, or lake. Ports often have cargo-handling equipment such as cranes (operated by stevedores) and forklifts for use in loading/unloading of ships. Often, canneries or other processing facilities will be located very close by. Harbour pilots, barges and tugboats are often used to safely maneuver large ships in tight quarters as they approach and leave the docks. Ports which handle international traffic will have customs facilities.

Access to other transport systems, such as rail and truck terminals can contribute to a port's efficiency. Some ports feature canals, allowing further movement inland.

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