Pipeline Transport

PIPELINE TRANSPORT

Pipeline routes are practically unlimited as they can be laid on land or under water. The longest gas pipeline links Alberta to Sarnia (Canada), which is 2,911 km in length. The longest oil pipeline is the Transiberian, extending over 9,344 km from the Russian arctic oilfields in eastern Siberia to Western Europe. Physical constraints are low and include the landscape and permafrost in arctic or subarctic environments. Pipeline construction costs vary according to the diameter, and increase proportionally with the distance and with the viscosity of fluids (from gas - low viscosity, to oil - high viscosity). The Trans Alaskan pipeline, which is 1,300 km long, was built under difficult conditions and has to be above ground for most of its path. Pipeline terminals are very important since they correspond to refineries and harbors.

Pipeline transport sends goods through a pipe.Most commonly liquid and gases are sent, but pneumatic tubes can also send solid capsules using compressed air. Any chemically stable liquid or gas can be sent through a pipeline. Short-distance systems exist for sewage, water and beer, while long-distance networks are used for petroleum and natural gas.

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